~ Part 1 in the Gender Dysphoria Diagnosis series ~
Part 2: Psychological Benefits of Diagnostic Confirmation
Part 3: Childhood Gender Non-Conformity
Part 4: DSM and ICD Diagnostic Criteria
Part 5: GIDYQ-AA Full Text
Full text of the GIDYQ-AA (male and female versions) available in Part 5.
For several months I have been seeing a psychiatrist who specializes in working with transgender people. The initial assessment was a comprehensive three hour interview which began with me filling out the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA). The GIDYQ-AA was developed in 2007 as a dimensional measure of gender dysphoria (dimensional referring to a concept of gender as a spectrum rather than two opposite poles) (Deogracias 2007). Among populations of heterosexual and nonheterosexual university students and clinic-referred patients with a diagnosis of gender identity disorder (the old term for what is now called gender dysphoria), the questionnaire showed “strong evidence for discriminant validity in that the gender identity patients had significantly more gender dysphoria than both the heterosexual and nonheterosexual university students.” (Deogracias 2007) Further experimental evaluation of the GIDYQ-AA showed similar results and reinforced the utility of the questionnaire in the assessment of patients with gender identity concerns (Singh 2010).
The GIDYQ-AA (female version) is displayed in its entirety above.
I had no knowledge of the GIDYQ-AA prior to my first appointment with the psychiatrist. My attempt to fill out the questionnaire at the beginning of the session left me more anxious, more confused, and more frustrated than ever, intensifying my pre-existing doubt that I had gender dysphoria or that I deserved to consider myself “transgender.”
Question 04: Have you felt, unlike most women, that you have to work at being a woman?
Answer: No, I don’t work at being a woman whatsoever. But almost every adult female does have to work at being a woman in our society. It takes my mother 90 minutes every morning to get dressed and put her makeup on before work, so I’d say she is working a lot harder at “being a woman” than I am and yet she has no gender identity confusion.
Question 05: Have you felt that you were not a real woman?
Answer: What does “real woman” even mean? How can I possibly capture my uncertainty within the check-box options of “Always, Often, Sometimes, Rarely, or Never”?
Question 06: Have you felt, given who you really are (e.g. what you like to do, how you act with other people), that it would be better for you to live as a man rather than as a woman?
Answer: How are behavioral preferences that overlap with opposite-gender stereotypes even remotely relevant to deciding whether to physically transition?
Question 10: Have you felt more like a man than a woman?
Answer: No, I never feel like a man or a woman, I just feel like a person with a brain that refuses to accept my existing female body.
Question 15: Have friends or relatives treated you as a man?
Answer: What does it mean to be “treated as a man”? Like what, if someone has difficulty opening a new jar of pickles, they’ll call me over to help? Or if someone’s car breaks down, they’ll expect me to know how to fix it?
Question 17: Have you dressed and acted as a man?
Answer: What does “dressing as a man” mean? Men wear clothes. Some of those clothes are traditional suit-and-tie business attire. Some of those clothes are drag queen costumes. But the clothes don’t make the body underneath any more or any less masculine. And what does ”acting as a man” mean? See response to question 15.
Question 26: Have you thought of yourself as a man?
Answer: What does “man” mean? Beyond the physical differences between men and women, I cannot come up with a consistently accurate and consistently differentiating definition of “man” versus “woman”.
Question 27: Have you thought of yourself as a woman?
Answer: What does “woman” mean? I’m so frustrated and confused that I’m about to cry and I am DONE answering these ridiculous questions.
The only questions I could answer with any confidence were:
Question 02: Have you felt uncertain about your gender, that is, feeling somewhere in between a woman and a man?
Answer: Yes, I definitely feel uncertain about my gender. But I don’t feel “in between” a woman and a man. I feel like gender identity is simply not applicable to me.
Question 20: In the past 12 months, have you disliked your body because it is female (eg. having breasts or having a vagina)?
Answer: Always, every minute of every day, since I was 12 years old.
So after ten minutes of wrestling with the questionnaire, I gave up and handed it back to the psychiatrist. He seemed surprised that I left so many questions blank. I tried to explain my confusion but he didn’t seem to understand how I could possibly have difficulty answering any of those questions. He told me that other trans patients typically complete the survey in a few minutes with no trouble.
The authors who originally developed the GIDYQ-AA established a cut-off score of 3.00, which was reliable in differentiating people with gender dysphoria from cisgender controls (Deogracias 2007). Months after that first appointment, I read a copy of my psychiatrist’s initial assessment report, which stated, “Tom’s GIDYQ-AA scaled score was 3.19 which is slightly above what one would expect for a transgender individual. Of note however, Tom had a great deal of difficulty answering these questions, leaving half of the rating scale blank and seemed to be rigidly stuck on the concepts of “male and female” so much that he could not answer the questions. As a result, I am not confident in the reliability of Tom’s score.”
I was glad that the psychiatrist acknowledged the unreliability of my score. But I was frustrated by his statement that I was rigidly stuck on the concepts of male and female. From my perspective, it was the questionnaire itself that was rigidly stuck on concepts of “man” and “woman”. The questionnaire seemed to assume participants’ alignment with stereotypical and binary concepts of gender. The authors who developed the GIDYQ-AA stated, “Gender identity often is conceptualized in a bipolar, dichotomous manner with a male gender identity at one pole and a female gender identity at the other pole. Individuals who have an uncertain or confused gender identity or who are transitioning from one gender to the other, however, do not fit into this dichotomous scheme… We developed a new measure which was designed to assess gender identity (gender dysphoria) dimensionally. In developing this measure, we conceptualized gender identity/gender dysphoria as a bipolar continuum with a male pole and a female pole and varying degrees of gender dysphoria, gender uncertainty, or gender identity transitions between the poles.” (Deogracias 2007) However, as I’ve described above in my answers to some of the GIDYQ-AA questions, I found that the questionnaire offered very little acknowledgment or inclusion of “varying degrees of gender dysphoria, gender uncertainty, or gender identity transitions.”
During the initial assessment, my conversation with the psychiatrist quickly moved away from the GIDYQ-AA. At the end of the initial interview, he told me that most of the trans patients he sees come in for their first appointment knowing that they want to transition and requesting referrals to start hormones and be placed on the waiting list for surgery. He asked me what I would like from him moving forward. I explained that my biggest difficulty so far was believing whether I actually have gender dysphoria, given how different my experience seems to be compared everything I’ve read from trans people and compared to his descriptions of other trans patients. I said I thought it would be helpful to have someone with extensive experience in this area tell me whether or not they think I truly have gender dysphoria, and if not, then what other possibilities might explain this extreme discomfort with my body. I told him that my differential diagnoses included:
1) a gender-centered variation of the body image disturbances that accompany an eating disorder
2) a generalized form of body dysmorphic disorder (such as muscle dysmorphia)
3) an extremely intense and unusual form of vanity
4) gender dysphoria with purely physical distress and absent gender identity
The psychiatrist seemed surprised by my request and told me that most of his other trans patients would consider it very stigmatizing to be told by an “expert” what diagnosis they do or do not have. He said that his other trans patients say they know themselves better than anyone, they are sure of how they feel regarding gender, and they just need help accessing resources to transition. I had no idea what to say in response to that, so I just repeated my explanation that I don’t feel like I have any sense of gender identity, all I know is that I am excruciatingly uncomfortable in this female body and that I’m very uncertain and confused about all of this. He remained hesitant to deliver any diagnosis following the first appointment.
During my second appointment, I repeated my request for a diagnosis or at least an exploration of other possibilities. He reluctantly shared his opinion that I do indeed have gender dysphoria. In his initial assessment report (which I read several months later), he wrote, “Although I did not share with Tom yet my diagnostic impressions with regards to his gender as this would interfere with therapeutic exploration of the topic, from my perspective he certainly would meet criteria for gender dysphoria given his strong desire to rid himself of the primary and secondary feminine sexual characteristics as well as stated desire for more masculine ones. There was no evidence to suggest Tom’s symptomology being due to body dysmorphia disorder nor by an eating disorder alone. From my perspective, Tom appears to also struggle with major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and anorexia nervosa (in partial remission)… At this time, Tom is still questioning with respect to his gender identity and I suspect more exploration of this will be needed prior to him making decisions regarding transitioning either medically or socially.” Any lingering doubts I had following his verbal confirmation of gender dysphoria were dispelled by reading his report, which was incredibly thorough, accurate, and well-justified. I also appreciated his recognition that more exploration would be needed prior to transitioning medically or socially. Since then, I have continued to explore these issues during my discussions with him as well as through conversations with friends, ongoing self-reflection, and my commentary on this blog.
When the psychiatrist confirmed his impression that I truly do have gender dysphoria, I felt immediate and astonishingly intense relief. It felt like I had finally accumulated enough objective evidence that I could start to believe it myself. In the days afterwards, I often found myself thinking, “Gender dysphoria IS part of my story! And I’m okay with that!” It felt like a brand new realization every time.
Following that second appointment, basking in the glow of that relief, I stepped out of the office into a chill November evening, streetlights pricking the silent darkness, snow falling gently all around. It was a breathtakingly beautiful night. I was the only person out and I felt entirely alone. And for the first time I could remember, I was content to be alone with myself. I also felt completely and profoundly… peaceful… that’s the best word I can think of to describe it. Just utterly at peace with everything. I don’t think I’ve ever felt anything quite like that.
“And now, who am I?”
– Alice (Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, 1871)
Deogracias JJ, Johnson LL, Meyer-Bahlburg HFL, et al. The Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. 2007. The Journal of Sex Research 44(4):370-79.
Singh D, Deogracias J, Johnson LL, et al. The Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults: further validity evidence. 2010. The Journal of Sex Research 47(1): 49-58.