Gender Dysphoria Diagnosis (Part 2): Psychological Benefits of Diagnostic Confirmation

Part 1: GIDYQ-AA Personal Reflection
~ Part 2 in the Gender Dysphoria Diagnosis series ~
Part 3: Childhood Gender Non-Conformity
Part 4: DSM and ICD Diagnostic Criteria
Part 5: GIDYQ-AA Full Text


In a previous post, I described the intense relief and peacefulness that I felt after receiving confirmation of a diagnosis of gender dysphoria from an experienced psychiatrist. Confirmation of the diagnosis helped reduce the overwhelming doubt and uncertainty (what’s wrong with me? do I really have gender dysphoria? or is this something else?) and helped me move towards acceptance. Acceptance of gender dysphoria facilitated the freedom to start considering transition options without being constantly tugged backwards by relentless nagging doubt regarding the diagnosis itself.

From my personal experience, it seems that most trans people have a strong intrinsic sense of their own gender identity and most trans people feel much more confident than I did in aligning themselves with the established criteria for gender dysphoria and in pursuing transition. My psychiatrist, who specializes in working with transgender people, told me that most of his patients are confident regarding their transition goals and just need help accessing resources to transition when they initially present to his clinic. One study described a group of adolescents referred for assessment at a gender clinic in Finland: “During the assessment process, 72% (34/47) of the applicants were sure about feeling they were of the opposite sex to their natal and about pursuing sex reassignment, but 28% (13/47) were not sure about their feelings regarding gender identity and/or sex reassignment.” (Kaltiala-Heino 2015) Those results support my anecdotal impressions that the majority of trans people feel certain about their gender identity and transition goals.

But even for trans people who are more certain of their gender identity and transition goals than I was, the potential psychological benefit derived from diagnostic confirmation of gender dysphoria should not be underestimated.

A prospective study published in 2014 evaluated the psychological response to different steps in gender reassignment therapy in people with gender identity disorder (GID) (the old term for what is now called gender dysphoria). “To our knowledge, it is the first publication that focuses on the effects of the separate parts of the sex reassignment therapy.” (Heylens 2014)

The study recruited participants from a population of patients who applied for sex reassignment therapy at a Gender Clinic in Belgium. These patients had not previously received a diagnosis of GID and had not initiated any medical aspects of transition (such as hormone therapy or surgery) prior to applying to the Gender Clinic. A total of 82 patients agreed to participate in the study after giving informed consent, however 12 were excluded from the study because they did not meet the criteria for GID (they were instead given the diagnosis of GID-NOS, gender identity disorder not otherwise specified), another 12 patients were excluded from the study because they did not undergo “full treatment (hormonal and surgical)” due to psychiatric/medical comorbidities (3 patients) or personal preferences regarding transition goals (9 patients), and 1 patient was excluded from the study because they committed suicide during follow up. This left 57 patients in the study (46 MTFs and 11 FTMs) diagnosed with GID who completed all steps (hormonal and surgical) in the gender reassignment process.

Supporting the results of many previously published articles, this study showed that, “Sex reassignment therapy does influence the level of psychopathology in GID patients, with significant reduction in anxiety, depression, somatization, psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and overall psychoneurotic distress… after treatment, the majority of patients indicated that they have a better mood, are happier, and feel less anxious than before. They also seem to be more self-confident and encounter a better body-related experience, indicating a less distorted self-image than before treatment.” (Heylens 2014)

Of particular relevance here, the results from this study showed that out of all the steps involved in gender reassignment therapy, confirmation of the GID diagnosis and initiation of hormone treatment were associated with the greatest psychological benefit. “The most important effect seemed to result from the confirmation of the diagnosis and the initiation of hormone therapy.” (Heylens 2014) The results strongly suggest that diagnostic confirmation of GID is, in itself, a very important and affirming step for patients.

However, based on the participant exclusion criteria, I think the results of this study may actually underestimate the positive psychological effects of diagnostic confirmation. The study excluded patients who did not strictly meet the GID criteria (an excluded group which may have included some non-binary trans people with less definitive cross-sex identity) and excluded patients who did not complete all steps of the gender reassignment process (the majority of whom chose not to based on personal preferences regarding transition). This suggests that the final population of patients in this study (those who received a formal diagnosis of GID and went on to complete all the steps in transitioning to the opposite sex) may have had a relatively high degree of certainty regarding their gender identity and transition goals compared to a broader population of patients (such as those with a GID-NOS diagnosis or patients who desired some but not all aspects of transition). The authors partially acknowledge this bias when they discuss the limitations of their study: “On the whole, our study population is a selected group that is not fully representative for the larger group of gender dysphoric people: they all fulfilled criteria for GID and were eligible for SRS. This perspective might certainly have an influence on the level of psychoneurotic distress. If there had been less certainty, at the end of the diagnostic phase and after initiation of hormonal treatment, about receiving SRS, results could have been different.”

Yet even in this population of gender dysphoric patients with potentially greater confidence and certainty regarding transgender identity and transition goals compared to a more diverse group, it is clear that the confirmation of the diagnosis (GID) by a professional was one of the most important steps in the transition process with respect to psychological improvements. “We found that the biggest decrease in psychological dysfunctioning is caused by initiation of hormone therapy or confirmation of the diagnosis by a professional caregiver. This finding was consistent with the subjective feeling of most treated patients and suggests that recognition and acceptance of the GID play an important role in the transition process.”

Recognition and acceptance. Isn’t that what we all want?

“If you’ll believe in me, I’ll believe in you.”
– The Unicorn (Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, 1871)



Heylens G, Verroken C, De Cock S, et al. Effects of different steps in gender reassignment therapy on psychopathology: a prospective study of persons with a gender identity disorder. 2014. Journal of Sexual Medicine 11(1): 119-126. 

Kaltiala-Heino R, Sumia M, Työläjärvi M, et al. Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development. 2015. Child Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 9: 1-9. 

Our Whole Foundation Cracks

Sand Dunes

A few nights ago I finally told my sister that I’m planning to start testosterone in a couple of months. I had predicted that her response might be surprise, or confusion, or neutral acceptance, or even a gentle “I’ve suspected for a while, I’m glad you finally told me.” But what she actually said caught me totally off guard: “Wow, that’s so exciting!!!” She seemed genuinely enthusiastic and excited about me starting testosterone. Of course, it was a huge relief to know that she’s supportive and I felt a surge of gratitude. But her excitement on my behalf also served as an uncomfortable reminder of my own lack of excitement at the prospect of starting testosterone.

For me, starting testosterone is no more exciting than starting an antidepressant: it’s just a pharmaceutical treatment, with no guarantee of benefit, aimed at managing a disorder that I wish I didn’t have. Except that with testosterone, unlike most other medications, the effects are systemic, irreversible, and impossible to hide past a certain point.

My sister also commented, “I am a bit surprised… all this time I just assumed that you were a girl who liked short hair and wore boys’ clothes.” I told her how badly I wish that was the case, how badly I wish that I could just be comfortable living in a female body. I don’t think that desire represents internalized transphobia. No, it’s just a painful recognition that it would be so much easier, so much less confusing, so much less distressing for me to feel comfortable in the body I already have.

It is not my intention to pathologize or medicalize gender dysphoria, which for most trans people seems to be a matter of identity rather than a “diagnosis” or a “disorder”. So I am speaking only for myself here. But I have ransacked every crack and crevice of my brain, searching desperately for any hint of “gender identity” – searching for something that would resemble what others have described as a “feeling” or “internal sense” of “being male” or “being female” or even being somewhere in between – and I have been unable to find anything like that.

In fact, I have no clear understanding of self-identity even beyond gender. I have no internal sense of “being me”. I – well I think we, as humans – are constantly changing and evolving as a result of gaining self-awareness, acquiring knowledge, and adapting to the influence of other people and external circumstances. Amidst this constant chaos, I cannot isolate a stable “identity” for myself. I simply recognize patterns in my thoughts, behaviors, and preferences, some of which have remained relatively stable over time and some of which seem to shift and change as easily and as often as sand dunes in a desert. Across this ever-changing landscape, I have a hard time understanding who or what I am. Perhaps, with time and further exploration, I might find out who I am. Or perhaps I will just learn to live with the uncertainty.

“[We are] incapable of certain knowledge or absolute ignorance. We are floating in a medium of vast extent, always drifting uncertainly, blown to and fro; whenever we think we have a fixed point to which we can cling and make fast, it shifts and leaves us behind; if we follow it, it eludes our grasp, slips away, and flees eternally before us. Nothing stands still for us. This is our natural state and yet the state most contrary to our inclinations. We burn with desire to find a firm footing, an ultimate, lasting base on which to build a tower rising up to infinity, but our whole foundation cracks.”
– Blaise Pascal (Pensées, 1688 – english translation)

Gender Dysphoria Diagnosis (Part 1): GIDYQ-AA Personal Reflection

~ Part 1 in the Gender Dysphoria Diagnosis series ~
Part 2: Psychological Benefits of Diagnostic Confirmation
Part 3: Childhood Gender Non-Conformity
Part 4: DSM and ICD Diagnostic Criteria
Part 5: GIDYQ-AA Full Text

GIDYQ-AA Panorama

Full text of the GIDYQ-AA (male and female versions) available in Part 5.

For several months I have been seeing a psychiatrist who specializes in working with transgender people. The initial assessment was a comprehensive three hour interview which began with me filling out the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA). The GIDYQ-AA was developed in 2007 as a dimensional measure of gender dysphoria (dimensional referring to a concept of gender as a spectrum rather than two opposite poles) (Deogracias 2007). Among populations of heterosexual and nonheterosexual university students and clinic-referred patients with a diagnosis of gender identity disorder (the old term for what is now called gender dysphoria), the questionnaire showed “strong evidence for discriminant validity in that the gender identity patients had significantly more gender dysphoria than both the heterosexual and nonheterosexual university students.” (Deogracias 2007) Further experimental evaluation of the GIDYQ-AA showed similar results and reinforced the utility of the questionnaire in the assessment of patients with gender identity concerns (Singh 2010).

The GIDYQ-AA (female version) is displayed in its entirety above.

I had no knowledge of the GIDYQ-AA prior to my first appointment with the psychiatrist. My attempt to fill out the questionnaire at the beginning of the session left me more anxious, more confused, and more frustrated than ever, intensifying my pre-existing doubt that I had gender dysphoria or that I deserved to consider myself “transgender.”

Question 04: Have you felt, unlike most women, that you have to work at being a woman?
Answer: No, I don’t work at being a woman whatsoever. But almost every adult female does have to work at being a woman in our society. It takes my mother 90 minutes every morning to get dressed and put her makeup on before work, so I’d say she is working a lot harder at “being a woman” than I am and yet she has no gender identity confusion.

Question 05: Have you felt that you were not a real woman?
Answer: What does “real woman” even mean? How can I possibly capture my uncertainty within the check-box options of “Always, Often, Sometimes, Rarely, or Never”?

Question 06: Have you felt, given who you really are (e.g. what you like to do, how you act with other people), that it would be better for you to live as a man rather than as a woman?
Answer: How are behavioral preferences that overlap with opposite-gender stereotypes even remotely relevant to deciding whether to physically transition?

Question 10: Have you felt more like a man than a woman?
Answer: No, I never feel like a man or a woman, I just feel like a person with a brain that refuses to accept my existing female body.

Question 15: Have friends or relatives treated you as a man?
Answer: What does it mean to be “treated as a man”? Like what, if someone has difficulty opening a new jar of pickles, they’ll call me over to help? Or if someone’s car breaks down, they’ll expect me to know how to fix it?

Question 17: Have you dressed and acted as a man?
Answer: What does “dressing as a man” mean? Men wear clothes. Some of those clothes are traditional suit-and-tie business attire. Some of those clothes are drag queen costumes. But the clothes don’t make the body underneath any more or any less masculine. And what does ”acting as a man” mean? See response to question 15.

Question 26: Have you thought of yourself as a man?
Answer: What does “man” mean? Beyond the physical differences between men and women, I cannot come up with a consistently accurate and consistently differentiating definition of “man” versus “woman”.

Question 27: Have you thought of yourself as a woman?
Answer: What does “woman” mean? I’m so frustrated and confused that I’m about to cry and I am DONE answering these ridiculous questions.

The only questions I could answer with any confidence were:

Question 02: Have you felt uncertain about your gender, that is, feeling somewhere in between a woman and a man?
Answer: Yes, I definitely feel uncertain about my gender. But I don’t feel “in between” a woman and a man. I feel like gender identity is simply not applicable to me.

Question 20: In the past 12 months, have you disliked your body because it is female (eg. having breasts or having a vagina)?
Answer: Always, every minute of every day, since I was 12 years old.

So after ten minutes of wrestling with the questionnaire, I gave up and handed it back to the psychiatrist. He seemed surprised that I left so many questions blank. I tried to explain my confusion but he didn’t seem to understand how I could possibly have difficulty answering any of those questions. He told me that other trans patients typically complete the survey in a few minutes with no trouble.

The authors who originally developed the GIDYQ-AA established a cut-off score of 3.00, which was reliable in differentiating people with gender dysphoria from cisgender controls (Deogracias 2007). Months after that first appointment, I read a copy of my psychiatrist’s initial assessment report, which stated, “Tom’s GIDYQ-AA scaled score was 3.19 which is slightly above what one would expect for a transgender individual. Of note however, Tom had a great deal of difficulty answering these questions, leaving half of the rating scale blank and seemed to be rigidly stuck on the concepts of “male and female” so much that he could not answer the questions. As a result, I am not confident in the reliability of Tom’s score.”

I was glad that the psychiatrist acknowledged the unreliability of my score. But I was frustrated by his statement that I was rigidly stuck on the concepts of male and female. From my perspective, it was the questionnaire itself that was rigidly stuck on concepts of “man” and “woman”. The questionnaire seemed to assume participants’ alignment with stereotypical and binary concepts of gender. The authors who developed the GIDYQ-AA stated, “Gender identity often is conceptualized in a bipolar, dichotomous manner with a male gender identity at one pole and a female gender identity at the other pole. Individuals who have an uncertain or confused gender identity or who are transitioning from one gender to the other, however, do not fit into this dichotomous scheme… We developed a new measure which was designed to assess gender identity (gender dysphoria) dimensionally. In developing this measure, we conceptualized gender identity/gender dysphoria as a bipolar continuum with a male pole and a female pole and varying degrees of gender dysphoria, gender uncertainty, or gender identity transitions between the poles.” (Deogracias 2007) However, as I’ve described above in my answers to some of the GIDYQ-AA questions, I found that the questionnaire offered very little acknowledgment or inclusion of “varying degrees of gender dysphoria, gender uncertainty, or gender identity transitions.”

During the initial assessment, my conversation with the psychiatrist quickly moved away from the GIDYQ-AA. At the end of the initial interview, he told me that most of the trans patients he sees come in for their first appointment knowing that they want to transition and requesting referrals to start hormones and be placed on the waiting list for surgery. He asked me what I would like from him moving forward. I explained that my biggest difficulty so far was believing whether I actually have gender dysphoria, given how different my experience seems to be compared everything I’ve read from trans people and compared to his descriptions of other trans patients. I said I thought it would be helpful to have someone with extensive experience in this area tell me whether or not they think I truly have gender dysphoria, and if not, then what other possibilities might explain this extreme discomfort with my body. I told him that my differential diagnoses included:
1) a gender-centered variation of the body image disturbances that accompany an eating disorder
2) a generalized form of body dysmorphic disorder (such as muscle dysmorphia)
3) an extremely intense and unusual form of vanity
4) gender dysphoria with purely physical distress and absent gender identity

The psychiatrist seemed surprised by my request and told me that most of his other trans patients would consider it very stigmatizing to be told by an “expert” what diagnosis they do or do not have. He said that his other trans patients say they know themselves better than anyone, they are sure of how they feel regarding gender, and they just need help accessing resources to transition. I had no idea what to say in response to that, so I just repeated my explanation that I don’t feel like I have any sense of gender identity, all I know is that I am excruciatingly uncomfortable in this female body and that I’m very uncertain and confused about all of this. He remained hesitant to deliver any diagnosis following the first appointment.

During my second appointment, I repeated my request for a diagnosis or at least an exploration of other possibilities. He reluctantly shared his opinion that I do indeed have gender dysphoria. In his initial assessment report (which I read several months later), he wrote, “Although I did not share with Tom yet my diagnostic impressions with regards to his gender as this would interfere with therapeutic exploration of the topic, from my perspective he certainly would meet criteria for gender dysphoria given his strong desire to rid himself of the primary and secondary feminine sexual characteristics as well as stated desire for more masculine ones. There was no evidence to suggest Tom’s symptomology being due to body dysmorphia disorder nor by an eating disorder alone. From my perspective, Tom appears to also struggle with major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and anorexia nervosa (in partial remission)… At this time, Tom is still questioning with respect to his gender identity and I suspect more exploration of this will be needed prior to him making decisions regarding transitioning either medically or socially.” Any lingering doubts I had following his verbal confirmation of gender dysphoria were dispelled by reading his report, which was incredibly thorough, accurate, and well-justified. I also appreciated his recognition that more exploration would be needed prior to transitioning medically or socially. Since then, I have continued to explore these issues during my discussions with him as well as through conversations with friends, ongoing self-reflection, and my commentary on this blog.

When the psychiatrist confirmed his impression that I truly do have gender dysphoria, I felt immediate and astonishingly intense relief. It felt like I had finally accumulated enough objective evidence that I could start to believe it myself. In the days afterwards, I often found myself thinking, “Gender dysphoria IS part of my story! And I’m okay with that!” It felt like a brand new realization every time.

Following that second appointment, basking in the glow of that relief, I stepped out of the office into a chill November evening, streetlights pricking the silent darkness, snow falling gently all around. It was a breathtakingly beautiful night. I was the only person out and I felt entirely alone. And for the first time I could remember, I was content to be alone with myself. I also felt completely and profoundly… peaceful… that’s the best word I can think of to describe it. Just utterly at peace with everything. I don’t think I’ve ever felt anything quite like that.

“And now, who am I?”
– Alice (Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, 1871)



Deogracias JJ, Johnson LL, Meyer-Bahlburg HFL, et al. The Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. 2007. The Journal of Sex Research 44(4):370-79. 

Singh D, Deogracias J, Johnson LL, et al. The Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults: further validity evidence. 2010. The Journal of Sex Research 47(1): 49-58.